The first revolt came from among the Berber communities of North Africa. It was led not by Arius but by a man name Donatus. The Berber always believed in the Divine Unity; they could believe in Jesus — peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him — as a Prophet, but never as God. In CE Donatus was chosen from among the people as their bishop. For forty years he remained the leader of their Church which continued to flourish in opposition to the Bishop of Rome.
The Bishop of Rome tried to install one of his own bishops in Carthage to replace Donatus.
What is the Trinity?
His name was Caecelian. This caused further unrest; the populace of Carthage gathered around the office of the Roman pro-consul and denounced Caecelian. As it was, the North African Christians had little respect for the Roman pro-consul and the other imperial officials. For generations now the Christians had suffered persecution at their hands, and regarded them as emissaries of Satan. Formerly, they had been persecuted because they were Christians. Now, they were to be persecuted because they were not the right kind of Christians.
Up until this point, Donatus had been their bishop. He now became their popular leader. The appeal had no effect, and Donatus refused to hand over his churches to Caecelian. The differences in beliefs were too wide to bridge. Finally, the Roman army came into action. There were mass slaughters of people. Dead bodies were thrown into wells, and bishops were murdered in their churches.
These events widened the rift between the Donatists and the Catholic Church even further. Constantine, who was a good administrator, realized the futility of trying to restore religious harmony and unity by force.
Deciding that discretion as the better part of valor, he left the people in North Africa to themselves. The leader of the Apostolic Church, which continued to affirm belief in One Reality, was at this time a presbyter known to history as Arius. He followed the teaching of Jesus — peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him — implicitly, and refused to accept the innovation introduced by Paul. His importance can be gauged by the fact, that, his name had become a synonym of Unitarianism even today.
Although the early life of Arius is hidden in mystery, it is recorded that in CE, he was in charge of the Church of Baucalis in Alexandria. He remained aloof from the alliance which the organized Church had made with the Emperor Constantine. At his time, Trinity was accepted by many of those who called themselves Christians, but no one was sure what it actually meant.
After more than two centuries of discussion, no one had been able to state the doctrine in terms which were free from equivocation. Arius stood up and challenged anyone to define it. Arius, by the use of reason, and relying on the authority of the Scriptures, proved the doctrine to be false. Therefore, there must have been a time when the son did not exist.
Therefore, it followed that the son was a creature composed of an essence or being which had not always existed. Since God is in essence Eternal and Ever-existent, Jesus — peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him — could not be of the same essence of God. Arius backed his arguments with numerous verses from the Bible which nowhere teaches the doctrine of Trinity.
The arguments of Arius were irrefutable, but Alexander, the Bishop of Alexandria, by virtue of his position, excommunicated him. However, Arius had such a large following that he could not be ignored by the Pauline Church. The controversy which had been simmering for nearly three hundred years came to its boiling point. The Pauline Church was troubled and annoyed that so many of the Eastern bishops supported Arius, whose greatest ally was Eusebius of Nicomedia, for they were friends and both of them had been students of Lucian.
As far as Constantine was concerned, things were going from bad to worse. He was plagued with internal political problems, and the conflict between the Pauline Church and the Apostolic Church was not helping his effort to unify the different parts of the Empire. His experience in dealing with the North Africans seemed to have taught him a lesson: he should not take sides openly. So he decided to call a meeting of Christian bishops in order to settle the matter once and for all. Apart from the leaders of the two contending parties, the majority of those who were invited to the Council were not on the whole very knowledgeable.
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Alexander, who was growing old, and who had been routed so many times before by Arius, decided to send Athanasius a young and fiery supporter of Trinity to Nicaea as his representative instead of going there himself. Thus, the Council was composed largely of bishops who held their faith earnestly and sincerely, but without much intellectual knowledge of the grounds on which they maintained it. These men were suddenly brought face to face with the most agile and most learned exponents of Greek philosophy of the age.
Their way of expression was such that these bishops could not grasp the significance of what was being said. Incapable of giving rational explanations of their knowledge or entering into arguments with their opponents, they were to either stick to their beliefs in silence or to agree to whatever the Emperor decided.
The Council dragged on for three months without reaching a definition to Christianity that satisfies the two sides. As the debate continued, it became evident to both parties that no clear-cut decision would be reached on the floor of the Council. However, they still both desired the support of the Emperor since, for the Pauline Church, it would mean an increase in power, and for the North African Church an end to persecution.
Princess Constantina, the sister of the Emperor, had advised Eusebius of Nicomedia that the Emperor strongly desired a united Church, since a divided one endangered his Empire. However, if no agreement was reached within the Church, he might lose patience and withdraw his support for Christianity altogether. Should he take this course of action, the situation of the Christians would be even worse than before, and the teaching itself would be endangered even further.
Counseled by their friend Eusebius, Arius and his followers adopted a passive role, but disassociated themselves from all changes to the teachings of Jesus — peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him — the Council agreed to. Under these circumstances, the dogma of Trinity was finally accepted as a fundamental doctrine of Christianity. The Nicene Creed was then drawn up an attested to in writing by those present with the full support of the Emperor Constantine. Campbell, J. Arius and some of his followers did not sign the creed.
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Of those who signed it, some believed in it, some did not know what they were putting their names to, and the majority of delegates in the Council, did not agree with the doctrine of Trinity, but, nevertheless, signed with mental reservation, to please the Emperor. Line of Attack. Constantine knew that a creed which was based not on conviction but on votes could not be taken seriously. One could believe in God, but could not elect Him by the democratic method. He knew how and why the bishops had signed the creed. He was determined not create the impression that he had forced the bishops to sign against their convictions.
So it was decided to take resort to a miracle of God to affirm and support the decision of the Council. According to one source, there were at least versions of the Gospel at that time, while other states: there were as many as different Gospels. Even if one accepts the most conservative record, the number must have been quite overwhelming. The drawing up of a creed which contained ideas not to be found in the Gospels and, in some cases, in direct contradiction of what was in the Gospels, must have made matters more confusing for some people.
The continued existence of the Gospels must have been very inconvenient. It was decided that all the different Gospels should be placed under a table in the Council Hall. Everyone then left the room and the door was locked. The bishops were asked to pray for the whole night that the correct version of the Gospel might come onto the top of the table. It was decided that all the Gospels remaining under the table should be burned. Unfortunately, there is no record of who kept the key to the room that night!
It became a capital offence to posses an unauthorized Gospel. This was how Athanasius tried to achieve unity among the Christians. The Arians put up a strong resistance, but Athanasius was declared, elected, and consecrated as a bishop. His election was disputed. Those who opposed his election complained of persecution, political intrigue and even magic.
She never tried to hide the fact that she thought Arius represented true Christianity. She also opposed the treatment of Eusebius of Nicomedia who had been banished by the Emperor for his beliefs. At long last, she had her way, and Eusebius was allowed to come back. His return was a great blow to the Athanasian faction. The Emperor gradually began to lean towards the side of Arius. Here, Athanasius was accused of Episcopal tyranny, and the atmosphere was so charged with feeling against him that he left the Council without waiting to hear what decisions would be made.
He was condemned. The bishops then gathered in Jerusalem where the condemnation of Athanasius was confirmed. Arius was taken back into the Church and allowed to receive communion. The Emperor invited Arius and his friend Euzous to Constantinople. The peace between Arius and the Emperor was virtually complete, and to further this, the bishops again officially condemned Athanasius.
Arius was then appointed the Bishop of Constantinople. Arius, however, died from poisoning in CE. The Church called it a miracle, but the Emperor suspected murder. He appointed a commission to investigate the death which had taken place in such a mysterious manner. Athanasius was found to be responsible, and he was condemned for the murder of Arius.
The Emperor, greatly moved by the death of Arius, and doubtlessly influenced by his sister, became a Christian. He was baptized by Eusebius of Nicomedia. But, he died only a year later in CE. Constantine, who had spent so much of his reign persecuting those who affirmed the Divine Unity, died in the faith of those he had killed. A conference held in Antioch in CE accepted monotheism as the true basis of Christianity.
This ruling was confirmed by another Council that was held in Sirmium in CE. It was attended by a much larger gathering than the Council of Nicaea. The majority of the bishops were from the Official Church. It was on this occasion that, according to Jerome, the world was surprised to find itself Arian. This creed was ratified in the Council of Seleucia.
However, when the Official bishops realized what they had done, they withdrew their support and reaffirmed the creed of the Council of Nicaea and the doctrine of Trinity. The Official Church continued to become more established, especially in Rome, and finally found unqualified imperial favor during the rule of Theodosius. On being baptized in CE, Theodosius issued a solemn edict, which proclaimed his own faith, and prescribed the religion for his subjects:.
Peter to the Romans; which faithful tradition had preserved, and which is now professed by the pontiff of Damascus, and by Peter, bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. According to the discipline of the apostles, and the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe the sole deity of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; under an equal majesty, and a pious Trinity.
We authorize the followers of this doctrine to assume the title of Catholic Christians; and as we judge, that all others are extravagant madmen, we brand them with the infamous name of heretics; and declare that their conven-ticles shall no longer usurp the respectable appellation of churches. Besides the condemnation of Divine justice, they must expect to suffer the severe penalties, which our authority, guided by heavenly wisdom, shall think proper to inflict upon them. A hundred and fifty bishops:. The vehement disputes of the fourth century had been chiefly employed on the nature of the Son of God; and the various opinions, which were embraced concerning the Second, were extended and transferred, by a natural analogy, to a Third person of the Trinity… final and unanimous sentence was pronounced to ratify the equal Deity of the Holy Ghost.
In the reign of Theodosius it began to exert its influence over the Emperor:. These edicts formed the foundation, and were the origin of all the laws which the Roman Catholic Church subsequently promulgated in its attempts to eliminate all beliefs, especially affirmation of the Divine Unity, other than its own. Their leaders were refused the privileges and payments which were so liberally granted to the leaders of the Official Church. Instead they face the heavy penalties of exile and confiscation of property for preaching and practicing their faith. By eliminating the leaders it was hoped that their followers would be compelled by ignorance and hunger to return within the pale of the Catholic Church.
Their gatherings, whether public or secret, by day or by night, in cities or in the country, were equally proscribed. The buildings and the land which they had used for worship were confiscated. The anathema of the Official Church was complemented by the condemnation of the supreme magistrate. There were thus ostracized from society and excluded from all but menial work. With the passage of time the Roman Emperors became even more subservient to the Roman Catholic Church. The coronation of the Emperor became a religion ceremony. In hading him the ring, the Pope told him it was a symbol of his duty to destroy heresy.
In girding him with the sword, he was reminded that with this he was to strike down the enemies of the Official Church.
This then is the story of the doctrine of Trinity, and how the Roman Catholic Church originated. Neither this Church, nor its doctrines were instituted or preached by Jesus — peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him —. Yet in the name of God and Jesus — peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him —, the Church reached a point where it not only considered itself able to define who a follower of Jesus — peace and blessings of Almighty Allah be upon him — was, but also felt itself obliged to eliminate all those who did not fall within this definition, especially those who affirmed Divine Unity.
From the past, let us now come to present and analyze this Trinity on the basis of Bible which we have today with us, and discuss some of the important points. As Bible is the basic Doctrine of the Christendom, therefore, like every sensible person let us approach towards the Doctrine of the Christian religion — Bible. Also Jesus never mentioned the trinity and certainly did not explain it in the clearest way. And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the Water, and the Blood; and these three agree in one.
Since then, attempts were made to justify the concept of Trinity in some way or the other. Whole energy is devoted to prove Trinity. No matter how much proofs you provide them and also if their own Christian fellows guide them, they are stubborn to their feetless, illogical concept. You bare in your mind, these words of mine, because, I am going to provide basis to back these words of mine.
Assembling Arguments. As I said earlier, that, every attempt is made to prove which does not exist. I have come across some of these attempts. Some Christian apologists advocate that God shows us trinity everywhere:. You can see that these are not hard facts. Anyone can assemble an argument for duality such as day and night, positive and negative, good and evil, etc. Anyone can assemble an argument from the very many natural facts to strengthen his claim. The Pyramid of Giza was exhausted in numbers to prove that it is a cosmic structure.
So where does this leave us? One apologist explained these three ways in which God exists and acts with the following example:. Abraham is a mechanic; he is also the husband of Mrs. Abraham, and again he is a member of the Evangelical Church. He may be in the workshop repairing cars, he may be at home with his wife, and he may be at prayer in the church. He is always one and same Mr. He is at once mechanic, husband and member of his church, yet always the same man.
At first, you see, this apologist stated only 3 jobs for Mr. Abraham to justify the trinity. Secondly, this apologist ignored to realize one very important point, that:. Abraham is at workshop, he is not present at home with his wife and not present in the church. When this apologist gives this example to prove Trinity, he shall also tell us that; Shall we believe that God of Trinity is also in one place at one time? One apologist claims that humanity was not ready for that language of one God with different personalities.
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Biblical contradiction of the Trinity creed
Similarly, God was one; and when humanity grew up, God revealed that he is still one but with personalities! Three-in-ONE clearly says it all! Yes, I do agree that Water will remain the same Water, even in three separate Vessels. But, a very important point which this apologist ignored out is that:. The characteristics of this Water, present in different Vessels will remain same i. Now, if you freeze this Water present in one Vessel, it means that the same Water present in other Vessels will also freeze upon freezing.
Let me conclude with a very eloquent example which was once presented by the British scholar Richard Porson. Verdicts by Teammates In following are some of the verdicts by the learned Christian people of Christendom upon Trinity:. Buzzard Charles F. If they are essential today — as all of the orthodox creeds and confessions assert — it must be because they are true.
If they are true, then they must always have been true; they cannot have become true in the fourth and fifth century. But if they are both true and essential, how can it be that the early church took centuries to formulate them? A History of the Christian Church 2nd Ed. Noetus had been expelled from the Smyrnaean church for teaching that Christ was the Father, and that the Father himself was born, and suffered, and died. The Encyclopedia Americana The road which led from Jerusalem to Nicea was scarcely a straight one. Fourth century Trinitarianism did not reflect accurately early Christian teaching regarding the nature of God; it was, on the contrary, a deviation from this teaching.
The New Catholic Encyclopedia Who is Jesus? Anthony Buzzard. God is a single personal being. The idea that a trinity is to be found there or even in any way shadowed forth, is an assumption that has long held sway in theology, but is utterly without foundation. The doctrine developed gradually over several centuries and through many controversies. By the end of the 4th century. The Shema consists of three sections of scripture Deuteronomy , , and Numbers The Shema was to be recited twice daily once upon arising and once when going to bed. Bowman Jr. This is in keeping with the Roman Catholic belief that Christian doctrine may be based either on the Bible or on church tradition.
The Roman Catholic Church did not get the doctrine of the trinity from the Bible; they hammered out their own theology of what they wanted God to be over several hundred years, and mixed Greek philosophy with Babylonian mystery religion, and their own private interpretations of the Bible. McKenzie, S. That belief as so defined was reached only in the 4th and 5th centuries AD and hence is not explicitly and formally a biblical belief.
Likewise, the developed concept of three coequal partners in the Godhead found in later creedal formulations cannot be clearly detected within the confines of the canon … While the New Testament writers say a great deal about God, Jesus, and the Spirit of each, no New Testament writer expounds on the relationship among the three in the detail that later Christian writers do. Christadelphianism, F. Wilkin, M. D, The Australian Baptist, Victoria. But gradually some addition or modification of this creed was found necessary.
Christians were fully persuaded of the Deity of Jesus Christ and later of the Deity of the Holy Spirit, and they were compelled to relate these convictions with their belief in the Unity of God.
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Does the Bible say that there is but one Lord? Yes, Isaiah ; Ephesians Does the Bible say that Christ is the Lord? Does the Bible say that the Lord is God? How could the church belong to Jesus Matthew and yet be the church of God 1 Corinthians ? Because Jesus is God in the flesh.
Will God give His glory to another? No, Isaiah Was there a God formed before Jehovah, or will there be one formed after? Isaiah What is one thing that God does not know?
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Another God. What is one thing that God cannot do? Titus How many Gods should we know? Only one. Hosea How many names has the Lord? Zechariah Is it good to think upon the name of the Lord? Malachi Does the Bible say that God alone treads upon the waves of the sea? Job Why, then, was Jesus able to walk upon the Sea of Galilee Matthew ? Because He is God the Creator. Is God the only one who can forgive sin?
Isaiah ; Mark Why, then, could Jesus forgive sin in Mark ? Because He is God the Saviour. Is Jesus the true God? There is no contradiction when we realise that God the Father and the Holy Ghost are one and the same Spirit. Matthew ; Ephesians ; 1 Corinthians When Paul asked the Lord who He was, what was the answer? While Stephen was dying, did he call God Jesus?
Acts Did Thomas ever call Jesus God? John Because "God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto Himself" 2 Corinthians Does the Bible say that Jesus was God with us? Did Jesus ever say, "I and my Father are one"? Can it be proved scripturally that Jesus and the Father are one in the same sense that husband and wife are one?
The Godhead was never compared to the relationship of a husband and wife. Jesus identified Himself with the Father in a way that husband and wife cannot be identified with each other. Does the Bible say that there is only one wise God? Jude Does the Bible call the Holy Ghost a second or third person in the Godhead? John ; 1 Corinthians ; ; Can trinitarians show that three divine persons were present when Jesus was baptised by John?
Absolutely not. The one, omnipresent God used three simultaneous manifestations. Only one divine person was present - Jesus Christ the Lord. Then what were the other two of whom trinitarians speak? One was a voice from heaven; the other was the Spirit of God in the form of a dove. What did the voice say at Jesus' baptism?
Acts ; 1 John God was able to do this because He had taken upon Himself a human body. The Bible says that God is coming back with all His saints Zechariah and also that Jesus is coming back with all His saints 1 Thessalonians Are two coming back? Only one is coming back - our great God and Saviour, Jesus Christ.